World Object

Ashura in Bangladesh

Ashura in Bangladesh: A diverse and inclusive observance marking the martyrdom of Imam Hussein and fostering unity and cultural heritage.

Oct 26, 23By Anwar Pervez
Ashura in Bangladesh

Ashura, also spelled as Ashoura or Aashurah, is an important religious observance in Bangladesh observed by various communities, primarily by Shia Muslims and some Sunni Muslims. This 2000-word essay will provide a comprehensive overview of Ashura in Bangladesh, covering its historical significance, cultural practices, religious rituals, and its impact on the society and communities that observe it.

Ashura in Bangladesh: An Introduction

Ashura, derived from the Arabic word "Ashura," meaning the tenth, is a significant day in the Islamic calendar. It falls on the 10th day of Muharram, the first month of the Islamic lunar calendar. While it is observed by Muslims worldwide, the way it is celebrated varies across different sects and regions. In Bangladesh, Ashura is marked with unique customs and traditions that reflect the rich cultural diversity of the nation.

The observance of Ashura in Bangladesh is notable for its participation by both Sunni and Shia Muslim communities, as well as some non-Muslim communities. The way Ashura is observed differs between these groups, with each community adding its own distinct elements to the commemoration. This inclusivity and the blending of various cultural aspects make Ashura an important and harmonious religious event in Bangladesh.

Historical Significance of Ashura

The historical significance of Ashura is deeply rooted in Islamic history, particularly in the martyrdom of Imam Hussein, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad. The story of Ashura is a tragic and heroic tale that holds profound religious and moral lessons for Muslims.

Imam Hussein, the grandson of the Prophet, played a crucial role in the early history of Islam. He refused to pledge allegiance to the Umayyad caliph, Yazid, who was seen by many as corrupt and unjust. This led to the famous Battle of Karbala in 680 CE, during which Imam Hussein and his small band of followers faced a much larger Umayyad army. The battle resulted in the martyrdom of Imam Hussein and his companions, a tragedy that holds great significance in Shia Islam.

Imam Hussein's stand at Karbala is viewed as a symbol of resistance against oppression and injustice. His sacrifice is commemorated during Ashura as a testament to the enduring struggle for justice and righteousness, and it serves as an inspiration for Muslims to stand against tyranny and uphold moral principles.

Ashura Observance in Bangladesh

Ashura in Bangladesh is marked by a variety of customs and practices that differ among Sunni and Shia Muslim communities. It is also observed by some non-Muslim communities in the country, such as Bengali Hindus, who participate in their own unique way. Here are some key elements of Ashura observance in Bangladesh:

  1. Muharram Processions: One of the most prominent features of Ashura in Bangladesh is the Muharram processions. Shia Muslims, in particular, organize processions that include Tazia (replica of Imam Hussein's tomb) and Alam (standards). These processions are often accompanied by chants, recitations, and chest-beating as an expression of grief and solidarity.
  2. Recitation of Marsiya and Noha: Marsiya and Noha are elegiac poems and elegies that recount the events of Karbala and the martyrdom of Imam Hussein. These recitations are an integral part of the Ashura commemoration, often delivered with deep emotion and passion.
  3. Tazia and Alam Construction: Building Tazia and Alam structures is a significant part of Ashura preparations. These artistic representations of the events at Karbala are constructed with great care and detail. Families and communities take pride in crafting these symbolic structures.
  4. Mournful Gatherings: Mourning gatherings are held during the first ten days of Muharram, leading up to Ashura. These gatherings provide a platform for community members to come together, listen to religious scholars, and reflect on the events of Karbala. It is a time for spiritual contemplation and remembrance.
  5. Charitable Activities: On Ashura, it is customary to engage in charitable activities. Many Muslims in Bangladesh use this occasion to distribute food and provisions to the needy, following the principle of helping those less fortunate, which is central to Islam.
  6. Self-Flagellation and Matam: Some Shia Muslims practice self-flagellation and matam as a way to demonstrate their grief and sorrow on Ashura. This is a physically intense act that involves beating one's chest or back, often accompanied by the recitation of Noha.
  7. Tazia Processions: Tazia processions are a central part of Ashura for Shia Muslims. These processions feature the Tazia, a symbolic representation of the shrine of Imam Hussein, which is carried in a grand procession. These events are often accompanied by rituals and chants.
  8. Sunni Muslim Observance: Sunni Muslims in Bangladesh also observe Ashura, but their practices may differ. Many Sunni Muslims fast on this day and engage in acts of charity and prayer. The focus for Sunni Muslims is often on fasting and seeking forgiveness.
  9. Bengali Hindu Observance: In certain regions of Bangladesh, particularly in areas with a mixed population of Muslims and Hindus, Bengali Hindus may also participate in Ashura observances. While they do not engage in the same religious practices as Muslims, some Hindus join the processions and express solidarity with their Muslim neighbors.

The Significance of Ashura in Contemporary Bangladesh

Ashura in Bangladesh goes beyond religious observance; it holds social, cultural, and communal significance for the country. Here are some of the contemporary aspects of Ashura in Bangladesh:

  1. Promotion of Unity: Ashura fosters unity and harmony among different religious and ethnic communities in Bangladesh. The participation of non-Muslims, particularly Bengali Hindus, in the observance of Ashura is a symbol of religious tolerance and coexistence.
  2. Artistic Expression: The construction of Tazia and Alam structures is an art form that has been passed down through generations. These artistic creations not only serve a religious purpose but also showcase the talent and creativity of the craftsmen in Bangladesh.
  3. Social Welfare: The charitable activities and acts of kindness performed during Ashura promote the welfare of the less fortunate. This spirit of giving and helping those in need is a core value in Islam, and Ashura serves as a reminder of this duty.
  4. Interfaith Dialogue: Ashura provides an opportunity for interfaith dialogue and understanding. It is a time when people from different religious backgrounds can come together, learn about each other's traditions, and build bridges of mutual respect.
  5. Historical and Cultural Heritage: The observance of Ashura, particularly by Shia Muslims, preserves historical and cultural heritage in Bangladesh. The construction of Tazia and Alam structures, the recitation of Marsiya and Noha, and the rituals associated with Ashura are part of the country's cultural tapestry.
  6. Spiritual Reflection: Ashura is a time for spiritual reflection and self-purification. Muslims, through acts of devotion, remembrance, and charity, strive to grow spiritually and morally.

Challenges and Opportunities

While Ashura is widely celebrated and respected in Bangladesh, it is not without its challenges. The diverse and inclusive nature of Ashura observance sometimes leads to debates and misunderstandings between different sects and communities. Striking a balance between religious traditions and maintaining harmony within the diverse society is an ongoing challenge.

At the same time, Ashura offers numerous opportunities for the promotion of interfaith dialogue, cultural exchange, and communal harmony. The coexistence of different religious groups during Ashura signifies the potential for unity, tolerance, and understanding in a multi-religious country like Bangladesh.


Ashura in Bangladesh is a multifaceted observance that encompasses religious, cultural, and communal aspects. It commemorates the tragic events of Karbala and the martyrdom of Imam Hussein while promoting values of unity, tolerance, and charity.

The participation of both Sunni and Shia Muslims, as well as non-Muslim communities, reflects the country's religious diversity and its capacity to celebrate traditions in a harmonious manner. Ashura in Bangladesh is a testament to the enduring spirit of coexistence, cultural exchange, and the pursuit of justice, values that have been passed down through generations and continue to be upheld in the present day.

As Bangladesh progresses and evolves, the observance of Ashura serves as a reminder of the country's rich cultural and religious tapestry, emphasizing the importance of unity, compassion, and solidarity among its people.